3D-printed FT44

4-key fagottino, Johannes & Georg H. SCHERER (3), Butzbach, 1760–70

FT44 is a four-key fagottino made out of brass and maple by Johannes & Georg H. Scherer, in the second half of the 18th Century, located in the Museum für Musikinstrumente der Universität Leipzig. See more details and pictures of the instruments at this link.

After the X-ray-CT scan was made, two 3D-models of each original fagottino were created using 3D-printers. The metal keys and the bore were printed separately using different 3D- printing techniques. 

The two different 3D-printed prototypes are as follow:

  • Model I: Based on data derived from 3D-CT scans, 1: 1, “as is” condition, including any eventual distortions of the inner bore.
  • Model II: Based on concepts used by historical woodwind instrument makers, with calculated round inner-bore dimensions, transferred into CAD models for 3D-printing. 
3D-printed fagottino after FT44. Model I
3D-printed fagottino after FT44. Model II

Some corrections were made in model II; in the internal bore, for instance. The following image shows some differences in the roundness of the bore that are noticeable when, in this case, the long joint of Models 1 and 2 are placed side by side.

Detail of the differences in the bore of the long joint in Model II (left) compared with Model I (right); printed “as is”

Furthermore in the case of this particular instrument, the original metal crown of the bell was recreated and printed in nylon directly on Model I, as possible to see in the photo below.

Detail of the two bells, Model I(below) with the reconstructed metal crown

Suggested Fingerings

(Reminder: all not mentioned notes can be played with standard fingerings).

f           open   (standard, to high, instable)




d`       12     (standard, note breaks and cracks)


f`         145